The Alexander Passalong Test was given by William Picken Alexander in the year 1937 at Edinburgh University. The test was published by the University of London Press. It is a performance test, used to measure the intelligence of a population ranging from 7 to 20 years of age.
A block design test is a subtest on many IQ test batteries used as part of assessment of human intelligence. It is thought to tap spatial visualization ability and motor skill. The test-taker uses hand movements to rearrange blocks that have various color patterns on different sides to match a pattern. The items in a block design test can be scored both by accuracy in matching the pattern and by speed in completing each item. 
Good performance on the block design test is indicative of appropriate functioning of the parietal and frontal lobes. Head injury, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke can severely reduce the performance of an individual on the block design test. Additional evidence suggests impairment in block design performance among schizophrenic and bipolar disorder patient populations, though this represents only preliminary findings.
Uta Frith, in her book Autism: Explaining the Enigma, addresses the superior performance of autistic individuals on the block design test. This was also addressed in an earlier paper. One article demonstrates the differences in construction time in the performance of the block design task by individuals with and without Asperger syndrome. An essential point is that in an unsegmented version of the task, people with Asperger syndrome performed significantly faster than neurotypical individuals.
In 1993, Dror et al. found that pilots' performance was superior to non-pilots on a test of the speed of mental rotation. Although the block design test is characterized as a test of spatial visualization, not mental rotation, spatial visualization ability as measured by the block design test is highly correlated to mental rotation ability.
As performance on the block design test has been suggested as a predictive measure for performance in fields such as engineering and physics. Felder, at North Carolina State University, has developed a learning style questionnaire that attempts to assess spatial ability in an educational context.
An intelligence test is defined as a series of questionnaires and exercises that are designed to measure the intelligence of an individual. These assessments can be conducted on children as well as adults. Although different assessments cover a variety of skills, these tools generally cover aspects of cognition such as:
Cognitive assessments do have a foot in controversy. The origination of intelligence has been in question. Some believe that intelligence is inherited through genetic predisposition, while others believe it is taught. Still, other people feel it is a combination of inheritance and environmental interventions such as culture or educational opportunities. Critics of IQ tests also feel that many of these assessments favor individuals from affluent communities, and have further suggested that there is a cultural bias in terms of race and ethnic groups.
The first modern intelligence test was developed by two French researchers, Alfred Binet and his scholar, Theodore Simon, in 1904. The French government was searching for a way to determine the level of cognitive ability in children. At the time, there was no way to distinguish between individuals with cognitive impairment and those who were unproductive due to factors related to motivation. Binet and Simon used a series of questionnaires where verbal and nonverbal responses were recorded. These responses were turned into a number which they translated into an intelligence quotient or IQ.
In more recent times, Harvard psychologist, Howard Gardner described intelligence to be far broader than any of his predecessors. In the 1980s, he coined the term ''multiple intelligences.'' His belief states that individuals are too complex to be tested in only language and mathematical skills. His theory calls for other aspects of intelligence, such as musical, interpersonal, and kinesthetic intelligence to be considered. Garner's theory on intelligence, though supported by many in the field of education, does not have the empirical evidence to support it. Some researchers feel strongly that Garner confuses intelligence with interests and talents. Furthermore, critics of his work feel that the distinction between intelligence and aptitude is critical to make.
Today, the intelligence test has many formats. The most prominent types of intelligence tests are the Binet-Simon Test, Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and Raven's Progressive Matrices. All of these tests use a series of subtests to produce a ratio that relays the level of intelligence of an individual. The tests can be used with children as well as adults, however, there are specific versions of these tests depending on the age level of the participant.
The score is determined by comparing the tester's score to the norm for the age group. IQ tests relay a score that relates to a scale where 100 would indicate the average intelligence of a person at any given age. The full scale is as follows:
Not all IQ tests measure the same things. Types of IQ assessed are verbal and nonverbal. Some of these tests, such as Raven's Progressive Matrices, measure nonverbal intelligence, while the WAIS is a verbal assessment. The Stanford-Binet Test measures both verbal and non-verbal responses.
The Binet-Simon Intelligence Test was first developed by French researchers, Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon. The assessment was intended for children between the ages of 3-13, and it consisted of an arrangement of 56 questions and tasks that were designed to distinguish between children with cognitive deficits and those who were lower performing due to lack of motivation or laziness. It was designed to measure intelligence in children without regard for their educational experience. The test that was originally created in 1904 has since undergone various revisions.
The test itself has gone through several modifications since its creation. The most modern version of the assessment takes approximately one hour to an hour and a half to complete with some timed portions. The test results in an overall IQ score that is derived from ratings in verbal and performance abilities. It also looks for patterns in the testing which might help to diagnose some learning disabilities.
Raven's Progressive Matrices is a type of intelligence test that assesses abstract reasoning through a nonverbal test. It includes three assessments that can be given to children as early as age five all the way through elderly people. Because the entire assessment is nonverbal, it is considered a strong test to eliminate any form of cultural bias.
Intelligence tests are a measurement of one's cognitive abilities in the areas of mathematical skills, memory, spatial perception, and language abilities. The history of the IQ test date back to the 1800s when the French government requested a test that could determine the intelligence of children without regard for their previous experience in school. Researchers, Binet and Simon created a test that would produce one score based on a series of tasks which they felt would represent the IQ of the subject. Since this time, the IQ test has undergone many alterations and stylistic changes. So too has the theory of intelligence. Psychologist Howard Gardner presented a new concept of intelligence in the 1980s which differed from Binet. Gardner introduced the idea that there was not one intelligence, but ''multiple intelligences.'' He felt it was important to account for more than mathematical and language-based skills but to also include areas of music, body movement, and interpersonal ability. This theory, however, was hotly debated. Critics of Gardner's theory felt that he was considering talents and interests as intelligence when really they should remain separate from the measurement of cognitive ability.
Today the two most common assessments for intelligence are the Wechsler Scales as well as the Stanford-Binet Scale. Both are similar in format and they both have scales for children as well as adults. Both also work on the premise that the average intelligence score is 100, regardless of the age of the participant. While similar, there are some differences. The Wechsler Scales provide a full-scale overall IQ score based on a verbal and performance assessment. The Stanford-Binet test produces only a single score and relies mostly on timed assessments.
In the middle of the 20th century, psychologist Lewis Terman of Stanford University adapted Binet's IQ test to be used in America. The result was the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test, which is an IQ test that is still widely used today. Like Binet's original French test, the Stanford-Binet asks the test-taker to solve mental puzzles that are designed to compute their IQ, with 100 representing the average intelligence of any given age.
Despite the success of Binet's tests, psychologist David Wechsler didn't like the way they measured intelligence. Even though they were meant to test intelligence regardless of educational background, Wechsler noticed that to do well on the Stanford-Binet, a person had to have a good grasp of language. What if someone had a reading disability or just wasn't all that great with words
In reaction, Wechsler developed two tests - one for adults and one for children - that measured intelligence in two different ways. The first part of the Wechsler intelligence scales was much like the Stanford-Binet. The score that a person gets on that part is called a verbal IQ, and it is often very close to a person's Stanford-Binet IQ. But the second part of Wechsler's tests involves tasks that don't require people to be good with words. These sometimes invo